Picture plane: the flat surface or plane in which the artist organizes the picture.
Scale (related to proportion): a technique where the artist makes one object larger than another in order to cause the larger object to appear closer to us than the smaller object.
Overlapping: a technique where the artist creates the illusion of depth by placing one object in front of another.
High-low placement: a technique where the artist places an object lower in the picture plane to make it appear closer to us than another object that is placed higher.
Arial perspective: a technique where the artist reduces the detail, and color intensity, as well as shifts the hue of an object toward the blueish end of the visible light spectrum in order to give the illusion of distance.
Linear perspective: A technique of creating the illusion of depth on a flat surface. All parallel lines receding into the distance are drawn to converge at one or more vanishing points on the eye-level line.
Vanishing point: A point on the eye-level line, toward which parallel lines are made to recede and meet in perspective drawing.
Eye level: A horizontally drawn line that is even with the viewer’s eye. In landscape scenes it can be the actual horizon line, but it can also be drawn in still life.
Convergence: In linear perspective, lines that represent parallel edges of an object; these may be drawn to converge to a single vanishing point.
Foreshortening: A method of applying perspective to an object or figure so that it seems to recede in space by shortening the depth dimension, making the object or figure appear three-dimensional.
Tetradic Color Scheme
Color Scheme Project
Analogous Color Scheme: groups of colors that are adjacent to each other on the color wheel.
Complementary Color Scheme: colors that are opposite each other on the color wheel.
Split-Complementary Color Scheme: a variation of the complementary color scheme which uses the two analogous colors adjacent to a color whose complement is the third color of this color scheme (Split-Complementary Color Scheme Examples).
Triadic Color Scheme: three colors equally spaced around the color wheel.
Tetradic Color Scheme: uses four colors arranged into two complementary color pairs.
In the example above, red is the consistent color. In the tetradic example; red, orange, green, and blue are used. In the triadic example; red, yellow, and red are used. In the analogous example; red, orange, and purple were used.
Another Color Scheme Project Example
Split-Complementary Color Scheme:
Triadic Color Scheme:
Analogous Color Scheme:
Complementary Color Scheme:
Color Theory: Organizing and Mixing Colors
Sir Isaac Newton’s (1642 – 1727) discovery of the color spectrum led him to develop a color wheel that included seven colors, similar to the seven musical notes found in a major scale.
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749 – 1832) defined three of the colors (red, yellow, and blue) on his color wheel as primary colors because he believed they could be mixed together to create all other colors.
Additive Color Mixing occurs when different colors of light are mixed together. Through experimentation, James Clerk Maxwell (1831 – 1879) demonstrated that red, green, and blue lights can be combined to create all other colors.
Subtractive Color Mixing occurs when different colored pigments are combined. One example of subtractive color mixing can be found in process printing. In process printing, the colors cyan, magenta, and yellow are combined to create all other colors.
Perhaps we need a more modern color wheel based on the discoveries of James Clerk Maxwell?
"There is nothing wrong with having more colors on your palette... Just because you can mix more colors from the three primaries does not mean that you need to limit your palette to these colors only." (http://www.johnmuirlaws.com/art-and-drawing/color-theory)
Color Theory: Perception
Light stimulates three color receptors in the eye; “blue,” “green,” and “red.”
Most colors stimulate multiple receptors to varying degrees.
Think About: Purple (Magenta)
Purple (magenta) does not exist on the color spectrum.
It is not a pure color.
It is a combination of red and blue.
Color Theory: Light
Visible light is the portion of the Electromagnetic Spectrum to which the human eye is most sensitive.
Isaac Newton discovered that visible light can be divided into colors.
Colors containing only one wavelength are called pure colors.
Pure colors cannot be divided into other colors.
The color of an object is determined by the wavelengths of light it reflects.
If an object reflects red light and absorbs all other wavelengths of light, it appears reddish; If an object reflects green light and absorbs all other wavelengths of light, it appears greenish; and so on.